So far, with the help of SOHCAHTOA, we have seen that:
Sine = opposite / hypotenuse
Cosine = adjacent / hypotenuse
Tangent = opposite / adjacent
These new functions are related to the originals because they represent the inverse ratios.
Cosecant = hypotenuse / opposite... (compare to Sine)
Secant = hypotenuse / adjacent....... (compare to Cosine)
Cotangent = adjacent / opposite...... (compare to Tangent)
Also, these functions can be abbreviated: Cosecant = Csc, Secant = Sec, Cotangent = Cot.
At the middle school and high school math level, you will rarely have a need to use these functions, but it is good for you to know what they are. However, most trig problems at this stage can easily be solved with the original three functions. Just in case, though, it's always good to know all the trig functions: sine, cosine, tangent, secant, cosecant, cotangent.
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